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Symptoms of chronic renal failure

Dec 28, 2016
The clinical manifestations of chronic renal failure are metabolic disorder and systemic symptoms. These may be understood, but what are the signs and symptoms of chronic renal failure?. The following experts specific analysis, we hope to bring some help.
Symptoms of chronic renal failure
Nephropathy treatment center experts pointed out that the symptoms and signs of chronic renal failure in the following areas.
Gastrointestinal manifestations of this disease is the earliest and most common symptoms, with the progress of the disease. Gastrointestinal symptoms were mainly caused by the increase of urea, the decomposition of bacteria into ammonia and ammonium bicarbonate to stimulate the gastric mucosa, but also related to the increase in the level of gastrointestinal polypeptide hormones and metabolic disorders caused by mucosal barrier mechanism. The early loss of appetite, abdominal distension, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea and hiccup. In the late stage, the patient has a urine odor, accompanied by oral mucosal erosion and ulceration, parotid gland swelling, and even severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Often associated with stomach, duodenal inflammation or ulcer.
Mental, neurological symptoms early symptoms of dizziness, fatigue, inattention, memory loss and sleep disorder, and apathy, reduced speech, disturbance of consciousness, the unconscious movement of limbs; late uremic encephalopathy, drowsiness, delirium, hallucinations, stiff wood and incontinence to coma. Peripheral neuropathy manifested as skin burning sensation, limb numbness, restless legs, etc.. Neuromuscular excitability is enhanced by muscle cramps and convulsions. Some patients may have autonomic dysfunction, manifested as orthostatic hypotension, sweating disorder and neurogenic bladder.
The results showed that when the serum creatinine was more than 309.4 moL/L, the majority of the patients had anemia, which was usually normal and positive. And with the renal function into a gradual decline. The main causes of renal anemia and renal secretion of erythropoietin (EPO) decreased and blood in inhibition of erythropoiesis by material, shorten the life of red blood cells, blood substances (lack of iron and folic acid deficiency), aluminum poisoning, secondary infection and so on. The bleeding is also very common, manifested as subcutaneous hemorrhage, epistaxis, menorrhagia and hemorrhage of digestive tract. Bleeding tendency was associated with prolonged bleeding time, increased platelet destruction and abnormal function, as well as various coagulation factors. White blood cell count is more normal, some cases may have granulocytes or lymphocytes.
The cardiovascular system symptoms of hypertension is very common, the degree of severity varies, average systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were increased, in serious cases of hypertensive encephalopathy. Severe symptoms occurred in uremic pericarditis, called uremic pericarditis, often have severe left chest pain onset, often, pericardial friction rub may have serious cardiac tamponade, the exact cause is unknown, in part related to uremic toxins.
The respiratory symptoms of metabolic acidosis often occurs even Kussmaul breath shortness of breath. Retention and immune function of metabolites is low easy with respiratory system infection, bronchitis, pneumonia, manifestation of pleurisy with pleural effusion. Among the more common interstitial pneumonia, X-ray examination showed typical lung on both sides of the door butterfly shaped shadow, called "uremic lung".
The movement system manifestations of uremic myopathy, common proximal muscle involvement. Renal osteodystrophy is extremely common, referred to as renal osteodystrophy, including kidney, renal rickets osteomalacia, osteoporosis, osteitis fibrosa, bone sclerosis, metastatic calcification and other performance. Osteopathic clinical symptoms are not many, few of them show bone pain, walking inconvenience.
Endocrine disorders endocrine function during chronic renal failure may appear disorder, renin angiotensin and prolactin and gastrin hypersecretion, thyroid stimulating hormone, testosterone, cortisol is lower than normal, thyroid, hypogonadism, male and female impotence, lack of sexual desire, advanced renal failure may appear amenorrhea, infertility. The effects of insulin, glucagon and parathyroid hormone on renal failure were prolonged.
Protein, sugar, fat metabolism disorder of chronic renal failure is often negative nitrogen balance. The essential amino acid level is low, normal or low fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance often drops, three glycerol levels are often elevated, very low and low density lipoprotein also increased.
The number of peripheral blood lymphocytes decreased, and the distribution and function of lymphocyte subsets were decreased. Immunoglobulin production is low, the body's immune function is low, easy to combine respiratory, urinary tract and skin infections, easy to develop success or failure.
Patients with symptoms of skin sallow complexion, dark lag, mild edema, manifested as uremia face. Dry skin, scaling, pigmentation, dull. Intractable skin itching is common, and urea cream and calcium salts, etc.. Sometimes Yuban, reduce the itching and resistance, may cause skin purulent infection.

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