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Primary nephrotic syndrome in children

Dec 26, 2016
Children with primary nephrotic syndrome (nephrotic syndrome NS) is a common pediatric kidney disease is due to a variety of causes increased permeability of the basolateral membrane tight ball, a large number of loss of protein from the urine of the clinical syndrome. The main features are massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, severe edema and hypercholesterolemia. According to its clinical manifestations, it can be pided into three types: simple nephropathy, nephritic nephritis and congenital nephrosis. In children under 5 years old, the pathological types of nephrotic syndrome are mostly small lesions, while the pathological type of older children with non small lesions (including mesangial proliferative nephritis, focal segmental sclerosis, etc.) are mostly.
The disease is common in children under the age of 16, the foreign population reported incidence of about 1/5 million, the cumulative incidence rate of 8/5 million China area investigation and cooperation of the statistics of primary nephrotic syndrome accounted for about 21% of the inpatient pediatric urinary system (1982) and 31% (1992), which was 1 years earlier the hair that has accounted for 58.9% of new cases of considerable number is one of the most common pediatric kidney disease and hospitalized because this disease is increasing year by year year.
Nephrotic syndrome can be pided into three kinds of primary, secondary and congenital according to the etiology, the primary nephrotic syndrome accounted for more than 90%, followed by a variety of secondary nephrotic syndrome, congenital nephrotic syndrome is extremely rare.
The etiology of primary nephrotic syndrome is not clear, the disease often due to respiratory tract infection and allergic reaction triggered secondary nephrotic syndrome is the main cause of infection, drug poisoning or secondary to cancer, genetic and metabolic diseases and systemic diseases.
1 kinds of infections (bacterial nephritis, staphylococcal infection after streptococcal infection nephritis virus (HBV), HIV, HCV associated glomerulonephritis associated glomerulonephritis (GN) malaria parasite Schistosoma japonicum, filarial mycoplasma, syphilis, leprosy etc.)
2, drug poisoning, drug allergy with penicillamine, two heroin (heroin), non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, C Rimstone Shug C Topley (captopril) trimethadione, a hydantion antivenene, perchlorate contrast agent; intoxication and allergic factors are metal organic inorganic mercury mercury, mercury bee sting venom pollen serum, vaccination etc.
3 systemic systemic diseases include systemic lupus erythematosus allergic dermatitis amyloidosis amyloidosis Sjö gren syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective tissue disease, etc..
4 malignant tumors, especially lymphocytic malignancies, can easily induce nephrotic syndrome, including Hodgkin's disease, non - Hodgkin's lymphoma leukemia, Wilm melanoma, multiple myeloma, lung clear cell carcinoma, etc.
5 genetic disease Alport syndrome, Fabry nail disease, sickle cell anemia cystinosis syndrome Jenue antitrypsin deficiency syndrome of patella
6 diabetes metabolic and endocrine disease Hashimoto's thyroiditis amyloid degeneration.
7 other hypertensive glomerular sclerosis, chronic rejection of renal transplantation

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