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What are common complications of nephrotic syndrome?

May 07, 2017

(1)  infection: due to the loss of a large number of immunoglobulin in the urine, plasma protein, affecting the formation of antibodies. The use of corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs, so that patients with decreased systemic resistance, prone to infection, such as skin infection, primary peritonitis, respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and even induce sepsis.
(2)  coronary heart disease: nephrotic syndrome patients often have hyperlipidemia and high blood coagulation state, so prone to coronary heart disease. It has been reported that the incidence of myocardial infarction in patients with nephrotic syndrome is 8 times higher than that in normal subjects. Coronary heart disease (CHD) has become the third leading cause of death in nephrotic syndrome (second only to infection and renal failure).
(3) thrombosis: prone to thrombosis in patients with nephrotic syndrome, especially the incidence of membranous nephropathy of up to 25% ~ 40%. The causes of thrombus are edema, patient activity, venous stasis, high blood lipids, blood viscosity increased, the concentration of fibrinogen and high content of V, x, VII and VIII factor increases and the use of adrenal cortical hormone and prone to blood hypercoagulability.
(4) acute renal failure in patients with nephrotic syndrome due to massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, body is in a low blood volume and hypercoagulable state. Vomiting, diarrhea, area of use of anti hypertension drugs and the plenty of diuresis, can decrease the renal blood perfusion suddenly reduced, and the glomerular filtration rate decreased, resulting in acute renal failure. In addition, nephrotic syndrome, renal interstitial edema, protein concentration, the formation of tubular blockage of renal tubules and other factors, can also cause acute renal failure.
(5) electrolyte and metabolic disorders: repeated use of diuretics or long-term unreasonable no salt, can make comprehensive secondary hyponatremia patients with nephropathy; use of adrenal cortical hormone and diuretics lead to a large number of micturition, if not timely supplement of potassium, prone to hypokalemia.

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