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Some introduction about nephrotic syndrome

Dec 31, 2016
First of all, we must make it clear that nephrotic syndrome is not a disease, it is a group of a variety of causes of the stubborn disease. In clinic, it is mainly as follows: 1, edema, edema, nephrotic syndrome is the first symptom, often insidious, is not easy to detect, there will be a serious serous effusion, there is effusion in thoracic or abdominal cavity and pericardium; 2, oliguria, often less than 400ml/d. Even without urine; 3, often before the onset of upper respiratory tract infection, skin infection and other infection history; 4, often pale, fatigue, anorexia, lethargy and other symptoms; 5, blood pressure in most normal, few have hypertension. Of course, if you want to diagnose, the safest way is to do a urine test, the diagnostic criteria of general practitioners has four main points: 1, proteinuria, 3.5g/d protein content, the urine; 2, hypoalbuminemia, 30g/L protein content is less than in blood; 3, hyperlipidemia, namely cholesterol and blood (or) high levels of lipoprotein, triglyceride, serum LDL (low density lipoprotein), VLDL (i.e., very low density lipoprotein concentration increased; 4, edema).
Two, the cause of nephrotic syndrome
Because nephrotic syndrome itself is a group of diseases of the body, so it is more complex causes, in general, can be pided into the following three. 1, congenital. This type of nephrotic syndrome is associated with genetic diseases, relatively rare. 2, secondary. This type of nephrotic syndrome is caused by diseases other than the kidney, such as Henoch Schonlein purpura nephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis B related glomerulonephritis, etc.. So even if you have a very healthy kidney, if you suffer from these diseases, we must pay attention to the protection of the kidney, taking drugs must pay attention to its toxic effects on the kidney. 3, the primary. This type of nephrotic syndrome caused by kidney disease, more common, accounting for more than 90% of the total number of nephrotic syndrome.
There are two main causes of primary nephrotic syndrome, one is the immune response, such as circulating immune complex deposition, in situ immune complex formation, etc.. Circulating immune complexes is due to medium size complex antigen was more excess when formed, it can neither be phagocyte, nor by glomerular filtration pore eduction, it free in the blood and other body fluids, and with the blood deposition in some part of kidney, eventually causing kidney damage. The in situ immune complex is a complex formed by the combination of antigens and antibodies that are present on the glomerulus, and it can also be deposited in some parts of the kidney, causing kidney damage. The other is because of inflammation. Little soldier of the human immune system, such as macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, platelets and inflammatory mediators, because knowledge is not clear, so the kidney attack, eventually causing kidney damage.
The kidney was filtration reabsorption some molecules, electrolyte barrier, such as protein, kidney damage, barrier is broken hole filtration reabsorption when leakage in some protein in the urine, which formed the proteinuria, with the loss of urine protein, protein content in the blood deficiency caused low serum albumin, protein content in the blood less, the liquid pressure is big, the liquid is pressed into the interstitial edema, liver had albumin content in the blood at too little, want compensatory synthesis of albumin, but white protein synthesis is not sufficient to compensate the loss in the urine, but also in the synthesis of albumin the synthesis of a large number of lipoprotein, which caused the occurrence of hyperlipidemia.
Three, the treatment of nephrotic syndrome
Our doctor treatment of nephrotic syndrome is the main purpose: to remove the cause and cause; eliminate edema, reduce blood pressure; the proteinuria decreased or disappeared; increase the plasma albumin, reduce hyperlipidemia; protect renal function and prevent recurrence. But in the actual treatment process, is generally taken to suppress the immune and inflammatory reaction in combined therapy of Chinese and Western medicine, the immune system of our own no longer attack our own kidneys, to prevent the worsening of the illness, then in accordance with the objective to prescribe medicine.
Four, the maintenance and prognosis of nephrotic syndrome
Patients with nephrotic syndrome in the disease period and the recovery of the goal of care: to maintain a normal body fluid balance, serum protein in the normal range, no infection, self awareness. Specific measures can be done from the following points.
Diet curing
A reasonable diet for patients with nephrotic syndrome plays an important role in the rehabilitation of the disease. Patients to eat what? Can not eat what? How much to eat? This depends on the specific circumstances of each person.
Overall, first of all, the diet of patients with nephrotic syndrome should be light digestible food, avoid seafood, beef, mutton, spicy food, wine and all volatiles. Secondly, in patients with nephrotic syndrome should be eating fresh vegetables and fruit, appropriate drinking water; bogey eat tonic, tonic food and easy to get angry. According to the specific condition of the diet are: high urinary protein of patients should pay attention to eat high quality protein, lean meat, fish, chicken should be based on the quality of animal protein supplement protein loss in patients with serious edema; should strictly limit the intake of water, salt, and control protein intake; high potassium diet hyperkalemia in patients with uremia food, such as bananas, citrus, potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkin, tea, soy sauce, monosodium glutamate, serum potassium in patients with low contrast; high blood uric acid were not eat animal offal, crabs, mussels, beer, mushrooms, beans, spinach; Yin deficiency patients, such as red tongue, pulse flash, night sweats, dry stool, avoid hematuria eat hot food and all the volatiles, but patients with Yang, such as white, pale tongue, pulse, cold limbs, thin stool, edible hot food.
Life conservation
In life, patients with nephrotic syndrome should have a comfortable environment, keep the air fresh, can rest quietly, less crowded places. Try to wear loose cotton underwear, comfortable mouth soft shoes, keep skin clean, prevent skin damage, pay attention to oral health, diet, prevention of infection, infection, cold, cold treatment. Pay attention to exercise, enhance immunity, but the physical and mental rest. Regular review of urine routine, renal function.
Five, the deterioration of nephrotic syndrome
We can know the cause just said, suffering from nephrotic syndrome, is has been in progress for kidney damage, if not damage kidney effectively blocked kidney repair was checked, then the final result is more and more serious injury, to renal insufficiency, and then to the kidney failure, eventually lead to the occurrence of uremia.

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